I-France isacindezele i-Haiti

Arthur Greene

Ngo-1791, izigqila zase-Haiti zavuka umbhejazana zalwa njengamaqhawe namakoloni ase-France.

Kodwa ngenxa yobuqhawe babo, baklonyeliswa ngesikweletu esakhubaza umnotho wezwe ukuya emashumini eminyaka azayo. Abantu base-France bakhokhisa intela enkulu kangangokuthi benza i-Haiti yangena esikweletini esiyiholele esimweni sayo sanamuhla njengelinye lamazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi abaholi base-Haiti balwela ukuthi i-France ibuyisele abakuntshontsha kubo.

Manje abacwaningi be-New York Times bachithe izinyanga bebala ukuthi isikweletu singakanani – kanti manje sibalelwa ku-R330 billion.

Ngaphambi kokuthi ithole inkululeko yayo, i-Haiti yayingelinye lamazwe anezigqila ezihlukunyezwa ngonya olukhulu emhlabeni. Ubufakazi obuhlasimulisayo bubonisa ukuthi abanikazi bezigqila abacebile babebuthana kanjani cishe nsuku zonke ukuze babukele ukubulawa kwezigqila enkabeni yedolobha lase-Cap Francais.

Ngesikhathi izigqila ziqala ukuzimela, zashisa amasimu ezaziphoqwa ukusebenza kuwo futhi zabulala abaphathi bazo ngesihluku esasenziwa kuzo.

Ngo-1801, umbusi wase-France uNapoleon wathumela imikhumbi ukuyothatha izwe lase-Haiti ngobukoloni kodwa wehluleka, walahlekelwa ngamasosha angu-50 000 kulolu hlelo.

Ngokwehluleka ukuphinde ithathe i-Haiti, i-France yacabanga elinye iqhinga. Ngo-1825, iNkosi uCharles X wathumela umkhumbi wempi ogwini lwayo futhi wafuna imali engu-150 million francs ukuze i-France ikwazi ukubabuyisela ukuzimela kwabo.

Uhulumeni wase-Haiti wayengenayo enye indlela ngaphandle kokuvuma, kodwa akakwazanga ukukhokha isikweletu sokuqala kuya kwesesihlanu. Kwadingeka bayofuna imali phesheya kwezilwandle, futhi amabhange ase-France ayejabule kakhulu ukubaboleka.

Izinga lenzalo ekhwabanisayo likhulise isikweletu ebesivele singakhokhwa – ngobusuku obubodwa imali engu-150 million francs yaba ngu-156 million francs, futhi yayilokhu yenyuka.

Imali mboleko kwakuyindlela yokuthi i-France imunce ingcebo ezweni eyayiliphethe phambilini.

Inkokhelo yokuqala yamunca i-Haiti cishe yonke ingcebo yayo. Amakesi ezinhlamvu zemali alayishwa emkhunjini owawulibangise e-France.

Esikhundleni sokusetshenziswa nguhulumeni omusha wase-Haiti ukuthuthukisa isizwe esisha, noma ukufakwa ekusakazweni ukuze amabhizinisi ayo athuthuke, imali yangena emaphaketheni alabo ababengamakoloni.

Kwaphela amashumi eminyaka i-France izuza kulezi zinkokhelo, futhi ababekade bengabanikazi bezigqila banxeshezelwa kahle ngokulahlekelwa kwabo, nokuyilapho i-Haiti yamuncwa konke eyayinakho.

Ngemuva kweminyaka engaphezu kwengu-200, uMengameli wase-Haiti ngaleso sikhathi uJean-Bertrand Aristide wafuna ukunxeshezelwa i-France. Isikhathi sakhe saphela kungazelelwe ngemuva kwezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye lapho axoshwa khona ngesikhathi kuketulwa umbuso, okukholakala ukuthi kwakuhlelwe yi-France neMelika.

Ngakho-ke i-Haiti isalokhu iphakathi kwamazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni, amabhizinisi nezikhungo zayo, ezilambele izinsiza, namanje azikanikezwa ithuba lokuqhakaza noma ukukhula ngokomnotho.

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